Estimates of clay mineral assemblages in deep-sea cores indicate widespread occurrence of kaolinite throughout the Amerasian half of the Arctic Ocean. Illite is the dominant clay mineral but the kaolinite/chlorite ratio of nearly 1.0 is twice that reported in North Atlantic and North Pacific sediments. Kaolinite averages 26% and is present throughout the lengths of all cores, some of which penetrate 2.8-3.0 m.y. old sediment. The widespread accumulations of kaolinite under conditions apparently unfavorable to its formation has special paleoclimatic significance because it has been used as an indicator of "low latitude" weathering. The kaolinite in Arctic Ocean sediments is apparently derived from shales and "relict" soils of northern Alaska and Canada.