Herbert J. Summers, Harold D. Palmer, David O. Cook; Some simple devices for the study of wave induced surges. Journal of Sedimentary Research ; 41 (3): 861–866. doi: https://doi.org/10.1306/74D72388-2B21-11D7-8648000102C1865D
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Surge velocity, generated by waves near bottom in the inner continental shelf, has been measured using the pendulum principle to indicate current strength. Several designs that can be visually observed, record in situ, or using strain gauges have been field tested and yield comparable results. These are more effective than rotors or other impellers, since the pendulums respond immediately to the changing stresses. An added advantage is that the instruments can be constructed inexpensively.