Field investigation of the Silurian High Falls Shale at Pine Hill, New York, has yielded well-preserved Lingula specimens. The distribution of Lingula shells on the shale bedding planes suggests the action of gentle waves on tidal mud flats. High hematite content of the shales, shallow-penetrating mudcracks, and symmetrical ripplemarks are included among other evidence that the High Falls was deposited under littoral marine conditions.

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