A fluvial origin in which meandering stream, backswamp, and floodplain environments formed fining-upward sequences is recognized in the Middle Carboniferous rocks. The sandstones are subarkosic and show little mineralogic variation. Bedding is uniformly thick, laterally persistent, and resembles the even-bedded alternation of sandstone and shale commonly found in flysch. Thickness distribution of beds tends to be log normal, indicating the possibility of a nearly complete history of fluvial deposition; whereas flysch beds commonly show truncated distributions suggesting erosion of the thinner units. Bedding characteristics, predominance of shale, and slope angle on a logarithmic plot of bed thickness at Joggins and four flysch sequences suggest that there may be similarities between fluvial deposition and subaqueous deposition.

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