Losses or gains between individual beach and nearshore sand reservoirs in Hawaii are temporary (seasonal) or permanent. Permanent changes in littoral sand supply include loss by (1) wave and current transportation to deep water through sand-bottomed channels that cross reefs, (2) entrapment in aggrading deltas and other coastal features, (3) surf abrasion to silt size, (4) wind transportation inland, (5) cementation in beachrock, and (6) removal by man.

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