Petrographical examinations of sediments from vertical sections of the Permian Newcastle and Illawarra coal measures of the Sydney basin have been made in an attempt to produce a correlation between the two units. The Newcastle measures are characterized by petromict conglomerates, lithic sandstones, crystal and analcite-bearing vitric tuffs, with bentonites and kaolinitic claystones; whereas the Illawarra sediments are considerably less variable and consist essentially of lithic sandstones and claystones with mixed assemblages of minerals. The marked vertical changes in composition within the Newcastle coal measures suggest that the sediments represent an intermingling of products derived from diverse source areas, each with a different set of structural, topographic, and climatic conditions. The environment for the Illawarra coal measures appears less complex.

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