The mode of occurrence and field appearance of several iron-enriched, near-surface deposits containing goethite, hematite, and maghemite as authigenic iron minerals are described. Environment and nature of the underlying or surrounding rocks are responsible for differences in their development. The iron is derived from underlying rocks and is concentrated in the soil and subsoil to form ironstone or laterite. Lateral migration within iron-containing sands and deposition from iron-charged waters produce iron-enriched sandy nodules and iron-cemented sands or subsoil. Iron enrichment has occurred in place.

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