"The south Wales underclays are interpreted as representing allochthonous soils which were deposited by aqueous means before the peat forming flora grew. Their mineral composition is determined mainly by provenance; leaching and weathering were active to only a slight degree. Many of the characteristics of the underclays may be explained by a progressive reduction in the carrying power of the depositing agent. The stratigraphical variation noted in underclay mineralogy is explained by postulating a relatively drier climate in upper Coal Measure times together with derivation from a different source."

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