"The upper Old Red Sandstone accumulated on a coastal plain bearing comparison with that of the Gulf of Mexico, which lay between uplands (St. George's Land) in the north and a newly created deep-water marine trough in the south. Cross-stratification and regional sandstone petrology suggest that several rivers, each with a distinctive drainage basin geology, constructed the plain and that these rivers flowed from north to south, off the uplands. The plain experienced two marine transgressions from the south during upper Devonian and early Carboniferous times, each relative rise of the sea leading first to alluviation."

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