The compaction factor for a Scottish Mississippian shale is estimated as 6 on the basis of the reduction in length: width ratio of crushed shells of Crurithyris urei (Fleming) from an original 1:1, to 1:3 and 3:1 (depending on their original position in the sediment) and thin section observations on the surrounding sediment which is compacted twice as much as the shells.

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