The origin and transformation of sulfur in sediments is considered from the geobiological point of view. The general sulfur cycle is outlined, and the part some of the organisms may play in the formation of petroleum is suggested. The relation between the quantity of organic matter and ferrous sulfide in a sediment is shown, Emphasis is laid on the fact that the black mud accumulates under alkaline conditions. The brown iron-containing layer which overlies the black sediments is the habitat of a group of organisms which probably play a very important part in the formation of ocherous concretions.

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