The basal boulder conglomerate and overlying shales of the Talchir stage of lower Gondwana sedimentation in the Giridih basin, India, are interpreted respectively as glacial and glaciofluvial deposits. A thin conglomerate at the top of the Talchir sequence is succeeded by arkosic sediments (and intercalated coal-bearing beds) of the Karharbari stage, believed to have been deposited in relatively shallow water and to have been derived from a nearby source area to the west.

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