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Coupled thermal-kinematic finite-element modeling done in 3D is used to study spatial and temporal distribution patterns of the lower crustal viscosity at transform margins during their continent-ocean transform development and passive margin stages. Modelled scenarios combine different pre-rift thermal regimes and lower crustal rheologies. The outcome indicates that substantial parts of the lower crust have the potential to flow at geologically appreciable strain rates. This discovery can lead to our better understanding of lateral variations in uplift/subsidence, upper and lower crustal thicknesses, and Moho depth. Modeled low viscosity zones having effective viscosities below 1018 Pa s make up ductility...

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