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Two basic approaches are used to assess the paleobiology of continental associations between insect herbivores and their host plants. First is a biological approach that emphasizes phylogeny of extant representatives of lineages with fossil records. Second is a paleobiological approach that provides intrinsic evaluation of fossil associational evidence, of which there are several types of studies. One type of study is intensive examination of single insect-herbivore associations that involve a continuum from generalists to specialists requiring detailed autecological deductions about life habits. Another tack is assessment of herbivore damage patterns from selected plant hosts through slices of time for...

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