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The chalk succession of N.W. Europe provides a unique record of the evolution of benthic foraminifera over a time span of ∼ 30 Myr. While the chalk environment cannot be portrayed as uniform over this period of time, it was remarkably constant. Indeed, the clay-rich lower part of the Cenomanian succession is transitional from the underlying Gault Clay Formation (of Middle and Late Albian age), extending still further the range of this environmental uniformity. It is not surprising, therefore, that the benthic foraminifera give us a wonderful example of gradualistic evolution through this interval, punctuated by occasional “events”.


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