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Upper Cretaceous reefs were concentrated in low- to mid-latitude regions in the Northern Hemisphere between the Americas and the Arabian Peninsula. Rudist bivalves, scleractinian corals, sponges, stromatoporoids, and algae were the dominant biota. Most Late Cenomanian through Santonian reefs occurred in low paleolatitudes (0–30° N) and were dominated by rudist bivalves. North of 30°, reefs constructed of corals, stromatoporoids, and siliceous sponges outnumbered those of bivalves. Campanian through Maastrichtian reefs occurred between the equator and 30° N and were also dominated by bivalves, whereas corals and bryozoans dominated the northern occurrences.

The distribution of Upper Cretaceous reefs was analyzed...

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