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Middle and Late Permian reefs flourished for about 20 million years in the Tethys, the Panthalassan ocean, the Delaware Basin, the Zechstein Basin, and the Northwest Pangean era tonic basin Eight reef types, which were differentiated on the basis of their taxonomic composition, belong to four significantly different reef environmental settings: (1) The Tethyan carbonate factory has the highest taxonomic diversity of macro-reefbuilders, yields massive, probably zooxanthellate rugose corals, and is mud-rich. Reef domains occur along the southwestern shelf margin and on Cimmerian as well as Cathyasian terranes. Typical representatives are sponge reefs found in Tunisia or Oman and...

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