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Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian organic carbonate buildups mostly lack large massive reef-building organisms, but rather were constructed by relatively small organisms, such as calcareous algae, calcisponges, and bryozoans, Microbial encrustation and submarine cementation often played significant roles in the construction of the buildups. These buildups consist of a spectrum of mound and reef types whose organic and inorganic compositions are controlled mainly by seawater temperature and light availability, which in turn are related directly to paleolatitude and/or water depth, and growth position.

Lower Upper Carboniferous (Bashkirian-lower Moscovian, Morrowan-lower Desmoinesian), shallow shelf to shelf-margin, organic carbonate buildups are mostiy broad...

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