Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian organic carbonate buildups mostly lack large massive reef-building organisms, but rather were constructed by relatively small organisms, such as calcareous algae, calcisponges, and bryozoans, Microbial encrustation and submarine cementation often played significant roles in the construction of the buildups. These buildups consist of a spectrum of mound and reef types whose organic and inorganic compositions are controlled mainly by seawater temperature and light availability, which in turn are related directly to paleolatitude and/or water depth, and growth position.
Lower Upper Carboniferous (Bashkirian-lower Moscovian, Morrowan-lower Desmoinesian), shallow shelf to shelf-margin, organic carbonate buildups are mostiy broad...
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Phanerozoic Reef Patterns
Detecting patterns and processes of ecosystem evolution is among the main challenges of an integrated earth system science in the 21st century. The evolution of reefs reflects changes triggered by evolutionary innovations and variations in global and regional controls at different scales. The prime fossil record of Phanerozoic reefs offers the opportunity to trace these patterns through space and time. Phanerozoic Reef Patterns presents a comprehensive and up-to-date review on the history of reef building in the last 540 million years. A selection of internationally respected reef specialists presents a database on ancient reefs that is hardly available for any other ecosystem. The thoroughly documented patterns are analyzed with respect to global change, whose impact on living reefs is intensely discussed today. Phanerozoic Reef Patterns stands out from recent reviews on reef evolution by its careful qualitative and quantitative approach based on a comprehensive and multifaceted databank, by the strong focus on data, by a complete and unified coverage of the Phanerozoic from the Early Cambrian to the late Neogene, by emphasizing paleogeographic reef distributions presented on 32 newly developed color maps, and by a detailed index that makes the book a valuable research tool.