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Abundant evidence from many fields indicates very strongly that the Arctic Ocean was ice- free during the Wisconsin glacial stage, and it is postulated that the ice-free condition of the ocean is directly responsible for the glacial stage. It is shown that the oscillations between ice- free and ice-covered states of the Arctic Ocean which could occur, would account for the al-ternations of Pleistocene climate.

Although the Pleistocene climate oscillations of the northern hemisphere produced simul-taneous oscillations in the southern hemisphere, it is concluded that the Antarctic ice cap persisted without major change through the Pleistocene.

The transition from...

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