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An important result of Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Leg 12 was the discovery of ice-rafted mineral grains in Pliocene sediments of the Labrador Sea and the Hatton-Rockall Basin. The oldest (first) occurrence of ice-rafted mineral grains in these sediments is associated with the evolutionary first appearance of the planktic foraminifer Globorotalia inflata (d’Orbigny) and the extinction of the coccolith Reticulofenestra pseudoumbilica (Gartner), or the first occurrence of the coccolith Emiliania ovata Bukry, or both. This association yields a paleontologic age estimate of 3.0 m.y.BP for the start of low-elevation Northern Hemisphere glaciation extensive enough to produce icebergs in...

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