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Exploration of the Southern Ocean by Glomar Challenger began in the Pacific sector with a boldly executed set of holes along a cruise track extending into ice-laden waters adjacent to the Antarctic continent. These holes, along with additional sections drilled in subantarctic waters off New Zealand and Australia, established the basis for regional biostratigraphic zonations of the smaller-sized microfossil groups (coccoliths, diatoms, and siiicoflagellates). Because these microfossils could be examined readily in smear-slide preparations of raw sediments, a rapid age-dating technique evolved called smear-slide biostratigraphy. In addition, a preliminary history of Antarctic refrigeration leading to severe Late Tertiary continental...

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