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The stable oxygen isotope record for the Cenozoic is characterized by a series of large third-order steps of +1 per mil superimposed on a long-term second-order trend. This second-order trend accounts for a δ18O change of nearly +4 per mil from the early Eocene into the Neogene. The second- and third-order changes in the δ18O signal are driven primarily by a combination of glacio-eustatic sea-level and ocean paleotemperature changes. These changes are global responses to evolving circulation and climate patterns. Timing of the δ18O events is in good agreement with the seismically defined...

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