Samples and geologic models are the basis of recoverable resources models. They are pillars of mineral resources and reserves estimation.

The geologic model, the most subjective part, is one of the pillars for the determination of an economic block model and requires detailed knowledge of geology, including structures, lithologies, alteration, mineralization types, and genesis of the deposit. A basic conceptual error can cause significant economic losses.

Given the relevance, subjectivity, and uncertainties of the information provided for the construction of the geologic model, this paper discusses some of the key variables to be considered for a practical guide to the process of interpretation and building of a robust 3-D geologic model and proposes best practices to avoid or mitigate errors and risks in grade estimation.

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