Polymetallic veins (Pb-Zn-Cu-Ag-Au) at the world-class Bingham Canyon, Utah, porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposit have long been recognized, but poorly understood. They are laterally zoned outward from the center of the porphyry deposit transitioning from Fe-Cu to Pb-Zn-Cu-Ag-Au mineralization. Physical and chemical characterization of these polymetallic veins provide insight into the origin, timing, and controls of ore deposition. These sheared, sulfide-rich, NE/SW- trending veins are dominated by pyrite and multiple generations of quartz, with lesser amounts of other sulfide and gangue minerals. Gold (0.27–4.61 ppm) provides the most value to the ore, though the veins contain substantial Cu and Ag as well.
Host rocks include Eocene monzonite and Paleozoic limestone and quartzite—all of which can contain economic ore lodes. Associated alteration is predominantly sericitic and argillic, with mineralization in wall rocks restricted to 1.5 m from the vein margins. Mineral assemblages vary with distance from the center of the main porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposit and the modal abundances are dependent on the host rock. The appearance of both galena and sphalerite (and tennantite to an extent) occur along a boundary that creates a halo around the center of the associated porphyry deposit. This is accompanied by a shift in metal ratios and an increased concentration of chalcophile trace elements in sulfides from the polymetallic veins as determined by electron microprobe analyses (EMPA) and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Significant hosts of Ag include galena and tennantite, and Cu is hosted primarily in chalcopyrite, tennantite, and sphalerite. The main host of Au could not be determined, but Au could be focused along fractures or hosted in inclusions found in pyrite.
The δ34S values of vein pyrite have a narrow range (2.3–3.4‰) suggestive of a magmatic source, whereas δ18O of quartz is more variable (11.5–14.0‰). These values are similar to several other polymetallic vein deposits associated with porphyry Cu deposits. This can be explained by fractionation of magmatic fluids at lower temperatures (350°–250°C) and/or mixing with exchanged 18O-rich meteoric water. Ore grades (Cu, Ag, Au) improve with distance from the center of the porphyry deposit; however, this is accompanied by higher concentrations of deleterious elements (e.g., Pb, As, Bi) for downstream processing.
These polymetallic veins were created sequentially throughout the formation of the deposit. Initial joints in the sedimentary rocks probably formed as a result of emplacement of a barren equigranular monzonite intrusion, with continued dilation and propagation in all host rocks with each subsequent intrusion. The northeast orientation of the joints was controlled by the regional stress field, which is more apparent distal to the center of the Bingham deposit. Vein mineralization appears to postdate all intrusions and the porphyry Cu-Au mineralization; however, it may be related to the late fluids responsible for Mo mineralization in the main porphyry orebody that followed intrusion of the quartz latite porphyry. Quartz-sericite-pyrite mineralization associated with the veins precedes galena-sphalerite-pyrite mineralization. This was followed by late precipitation of chalcopyrite and tennantite and late normal faulting.