We appreciate the comments of G.D. Langstaff and the opportunity to elaborate on the origin of Carlin-type gold deposits. Langstaff focuses on two of the critical issues regarding these deposits, their age and spatial association with igneous rocks. Although his comment mentions almost every known Carlin-type deposit, our reply focuses on deposits in major districts.

Direct dating of hydrothermal minerals and indirect dating based on crosscutting relations with pre-, syn-, or postmineral rocks in Nevada have demonstrated that major deposits in all trends are Eocene (Emsbo et al., 1996; Leonardson and Rahn, 1996; Phinisey et al., 1996...

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