Geophysical surveys have been used for mineral exploration in Australia since 1928 and have played an important role in exploration, particularly for volcanic-hosted massive sulfide (VHMS) deposits. In recent times geophysics may be credited with the discovery of the Que River, Hellyer, and Benambra deposits. The use of geophysics in VHMS exploration is likely to increase as targets become deeper and downhole methods will be especially emphasized.For the present and foreseeable future, electromagnetic (EM) and particularly drill hole electromagnetic (DHEM) methods will continue to be the most important geophysical techniques in Australian VHMS exploration. However, there exists a class of resistive deposits which do not respond to EM. These are usually iron poor, zinc rich, or fragmented and silicified and many may have been missed. Together with a desire for increasing penetration, this type of target provides an interesting geophysical problem for the future.