Abstract

Five stratiform Zn-Pb-Ag deposits are known in Early Cambrian metapelitic rocks along a curvilinear trend in the Anvil Range, central Yukon. The Anvil Range deposits occur along the southwestern boundary of the Selwyn basin in the stratigraphic transition zone between metapelites of the Mt. Mye unit and calcareous phyllites of the overlying Vangorda unit. The massive sulfides are associated closely with anomalously thick graphitic phyllites, apparently related to a second-order basin. A typical Anvil cycle of mineralization begins with a ribbon-banded graphitic-quartzitic-pyritic unit. This grades upward into sulfide-bearing quartzite, quartzitic massive sulfide, massive sulfide, and finally a baritic massive sulfide horizon. Sericitic alteration envelopes irregularly encompass each deposit and locally are developed best in footwall rocks.Detailed sulfur isotope studies have been carried out on the DY and Grum deposits and on one representative drill hole from the Faro deposit. The delta 34 S values of sulfide minerals generally range from 10 to 22 per mil and are similar in all three deposits. The delta 34 S values of pyrite in unmineralized samples from the district exhibit a wider range, from 6 to 34 per mil, and show distinct upward stratigraphic increase due to a stagnation cycle in the basin.The delta 34 S values of barite samples are strongly dependent on bottom-water conditions and mode of mixing during brine exhalation. They range from 22 to 26 per mil in the Faro deposit to 36 to 42 per mil in the DY deposit. These variations are due to mixing of isotopically light sulfate (18-20ppm) in Ba-bearing ore fluid and isotopically heavy residual sulfate (30-60ppm) in anoxic seawater.Thirty-eight samples of galena from the DY, Grum, Faro, SB, and Swim deposits have been analyzed for lead isotope ratios. In general, the lead isotope ratio data indicate an upper crustal lead source, with the Proterozoic Grit unit which is inferred to underlie the district being the most likely source rock. A small component of mantle leads from mafic igneous rocks or due to source rock inhomogeneity is also indicated.Graphitic host lithologies, lack of stratiform iron oxides, delta 34 S values of sedimentary pyrite, and sulfide sulfur-organic carbon variations in unmineralized cores indicate formation of the Anvil deposits in strongly reduced bottom water related to a previously unknown Early Cambrian anoxic event.

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