Ilmenite and its alteration products in commercial heavy-mineral concentrates were studied by means of chemical analysis, optical microscopy, electron microscopy, electron microprobe, and X-ray diffraction. Breakdown of ilmenite involves oxidation and ultimate removal of iron. Alteration starts on surface of grains and on cleavages and fractures. Phases present in the altered material are ilmenite, rutile, and a new iron-titanium oxide named pseudorutile. Final removal of iron from altered ilmenite occurs only in or above the zone of water-table fluctuation.

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