Microscopic and x-ray studies of manganese minerals from 15 deposits provide the basis for classification into spessartite, rhodochrosite, and braunite protores, together with their residual and lateritic derivatives. The most important minerals are pyrolusite-polianite, cryptomelane, and lithiophorite. Chalcophanite, manganite, and braunite are less common. Limonite is generally present.

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