The principal rock units of Balabac, the southwesternmost island of the Philippines, comprise a chert-spilite formation, considered upper Cretaceouslower Eocene, which is strongly deformed and intruded by serpentinite masses, and the Balabac sandstone, of Miocene age. Pliocene and Quaternary deposits are also present. Structural trends are essentially similar to those of the nearby Kudat peninsula in North Borneo. Geophysical surveys in areas of surface indications of mineralization led to the discovery of the Lorraine ore body, a massive pyrite-chalcopyrite replacement deposit in bedded cherts near Espina Point.

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