Iron ores occurring mainly in lower Eocene limestone at Gebel Ghorabi, in the northern part of the oasis, include an oolitic type consisting essentially of goethite, a vesicular type containing hematite with pyrolusite and psilomelane, a hard, dark brown type consisting of goethite and hematite with some pyrolusite, and a low-grade limonitic type. Study of the mineral assemblages and ore textures shows that processes of metasomatic replacement, colloidal precipitation, cavity filling, and impregnation have been involved in formation of the deposits.

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