Field investigations carried out in several mine districts of the copper belt, and detailed analytic studies (with the assistance of M. A. Gilbert), have shown that while copper (and cobalt) anomalies are observable throughout the profile in both freely and poorly drained residual soils derived from mineralized bedrock, the magnitude and lateral extent of the anomalies can vary considerably, depending on the lithology and permeability of the host rocks (chiefly sandstones and shales), the grade of mineralization, type of soil, and topographic (and hydrogeologic) environment. Ground water is the principal agency in dispersion of metals; the effects of soil creep and the activity of termites are limited.

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