Pyrolusite and manganite are the most abundant manganese minerals; psilomelane and cryptomelane are less common, and ramsdellite is present only in minute quantities. The deposits of the Eastern Desert (mainly fissure fillings in Miocene sedimentary rocks) contain less goethite and hematite than those of west-central Sinai, which occur as bands and lenses in Carboniferous dolomitic limestone and are the most important source of manganese and manganiferous iron ores in Egypt.

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