The chemical elements are each represented by one or more specific isotopes, i.e., species of elements. The percent abundances of the stable isotopes, determined from specimens of various occurrences in nature, are fairly constant especially for the heavier elements. There is, however, a noticeable and measurable difference in the abundances of the stable isotopes of the lighter elements detected in specimens from different environments. These variations in abundances have, in the past, and will continue to provide, in the future, important information on geologic processes, and provide further insight into the genesis of rocks, ores, and minerals.

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