The Kayad Zn-Pb deposit, situated within the Proterozoic Aravalli-Delhi fold belt in western India, is primarily characterized by sphalerite and galena along with pyrrhotite and chalcopyrite. The mineralization occurs as disseminated ores in quartzite, disseminated/laminated and massive ores in quartz-mica schist, and in pegmatite and quartz veins. The laminated ores conform to the regional schistosity and folding, whereas the massive Zn-Pb ores postdate the pervasive tectonic fabric, accumulating at the fold hinges. The massive ore is characterized by durchbewegung texture, discrete blebs of galena and chalcopyrite in a sphalerite matrix with low interfacial angles, and discrete intergrowths of sulfides and sulfosalts such as pyrargyrite, gudmundite, Ag-tetrahedrite, and breithauptite. Geochemical analyses of sulfides reveal microinclusions of sulfosalts comprising Ag, Sb, Cu, Tl, and As, which are regarded as low-melting chalcophile elements (LMCEs). Hydrothermal alteration is insignificant in the laminated and massive ores but prominent around Fe-Cu ± Zn-Pb and Zn-Pb ± Fe-Cu veins. The alteration assemblages in these veins evince a pervasive K + Na ± Fe alteration, later overprinted by a subsidiary Ca ± Na alteration. We interpret the laminated/disseminated ores to be of syndiagenetic sedimentary-exhalative (SedEx) origin formed within an euxinic basin. Conversely, the textural features, mineralogical composition, lack of associated hydrothermal alterations, and evident structural influence on the emplacement of the massive ores suggest they have been remobilized both via plastic flow and by sulfide partial melting. Temperature estimates of up to 650°C, derived from Ti-in-biotite geothermometry of the metamorphosed host rocks, indicate lower-middle amphibolite facies conditions during regional metamorphism. The initiation of melting at these temperatures was promoted by the desulfurization of pyrite to pyrrhotite in quartz-mica schist, aided by melting point depression due to the presence of LMCEs like Ag, Sb, and As.

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