Porphyry deposits typically occur in subduction-related arcs but have more recently also been described in postsubduction, collisional to extensional back-arc settings. These different tectonic environments not only might imply different genetic processes but also seem to result in different metal endowments (e.g., Au rich versus Cu rich). It is therefore relevant, also for exploration purposes, to understand the magmatic processes involved in porphyry formation in these different tectonic environments. This study focuses on the Kışladaǧ porphyry Au (17.4 Moz) deposit in western Anatolia, which is centered on a series of porphyritic monzonite stocks of high-K calc-alkaline to shoshonitic affinity and formed in a continental rifting environment. With 17.4 Moz of Au, Kışladaǧ is of global metallogenic importance and hence a good example for studying the genetic processes associated with porphyry deposits in extensional back-arc settings.
We herein combine a comprehensive set of new zircon textural observations, in situ zircon trace element and Hf isotope data, and previously published zircon geochronology to study the magmatic processes associated with porphyry deposit formation at Kışladaǧ. We show that mafic rejuvenation of a slowly crystallizing (between ~15.8 and 14.9 Ma) magma reservoir below Kışladaǧ immediately preceded porphyry deposit formation. Zircon trace elements and geochronology suggest a longer and deeper evolution for the early fertile magmas compared to the later infertile magmas. Magma evolution at Kışladaǧ was accompanied by crustal wall-rock assimilation. Whole-rock Nd and Sr radiogenic isotopes show that increasing asthenosphere-derived melt input under accelerated regional extension caused a loss in fertility of the system over time.