The iron oxide-apatite (IOA) deposits of the eastern Adirondack Highlands, New York, are historical high-grade magnetite mines that contain variable concentrations of rare earth element (REE)-bearing apatite crystals. The majority of the deposits are hosted within sodically altered Lyon Mountain granite gneiss, although some deposits occur within paragneiss, gabbro, anorthosite, or potassically altered Lyon Mountain granite gneiss. The IOA deposits and the waste and/or tailings piles associated with them have potential as an unconventional resource for REEs. Reprocessing of these piles would have the advantage of partial recycling of the waste material to produce a set of critical elements.
Thirty-four ore, nine rock, 25 waste-pile, and four tailings-pile samples were collected and analyzed for major, minor, and trace elements. At the tailings- and waste-pile sites, composite samples were collected by combining 30 to >50 subsamples randomly distributed over each pile. The total REE content of the waste and tailings piles varied from approximately 10 to 22,000 ppm, whereas the ore sample concentrations ranged from approximately 15 to 48,000 ppm total REEs. A positive correlation exists between the total REE content of ore and its associated waste pile. Median light REE/heavy REE values were 2.14 for waste/tailings piles and 2.25 for ore, which is a substantial relative enrichment in the heavy REEs in comparison to many developed REE mines, such as the mined carbonatites of Bayan Obo, China, and Mountain Pass, California. Importantly, the ore and waste samples are significantly enriched in both Y and Nd compared to other REEs in the samples. Other minor components such as Th are also elevated. Airborne radiometric surveys show large positive eTh and eU anomalies corresponding to tailings piles.
Although it is a limited data set, geochemical data of unaltered and altered host rocks suggest a speculative new model for IOA ore formation in the Adirondack Highlands that is consistent with the geology and previously published data. The ferroan ore-hosting Lyon Mountain granite gneiss underwent localized potassic alteration that enriched the altered rock in Fe, REEs, Th, and other metals. A later sodic alteration event affected the previously potassically altered Lyon Mountain granite gneiss, which increased rock porosity and remobilized Fe, REEs, and other elements from the host rock into the iron ore seams. The sodic fluids responsible for ore formation were enriched in F and Cl.