Although they currently supply <5% of the world’s Cu and <1% of the world’s Au, iron oxide copper-gold (IOCG) deposits are a highly fashionable and poorly understood class of ore deposits. They comprise a wide range of deposits with a primary shared characteristic that is the presence of iron oxide, either magnetite or hematite, in association with Cu and Au. Understanding the processes by which these deposits form has proven a major challenge in the past two decades and it is likely that the ore class includes deposits formed by fundamentally different processes in different tectonic environments. The number of...

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