Strata-bound carbonate-replacement Pb-Zn-Ag deposits in the Lavrion district, Greece, are spatially related to a late Miocene granodiorite intrusion (7–10 Ma) and various sills and dikes of mafic to felsic composition. The Plaka granodiorite contains porphyry molybdenum mineralization and is locally associated with a Ca-Fe skarn. Carbonate-replacement deposits occur predominantly in marbles (Upper and Lower Marble of the Basal unit), Kaesariani schists, and along a major detachment fault that separates the Basal unit from the Upper unit. Orebodies are mainly strata bound carbonate-replacement, although sulfides also occur in veins. The mineralogy of carbonate-replacement deposits is dominated by base metal sulfides and sulfosalts of Ag, Bi, Sn, Sb, As, and Pb, particularly at Plaka and Kamariza. Carbonates are intergrown with earlier formed sulfides and sulfosalts but are more abundant late in the paragenetic sequence with fluorite and barite. Fluid inclusion studies of sphalerite, fluorite, calcite, and quartz in carbonate-replacement deposits suggest that they were deposited from 132° to 365°C from CO2-poor, low- to high-salinity fluids (1–20 wt % NaCl equiv).
Carbon and oxygen isotope compositions of calcite (δ13C = −15.6 to −1.5‰ and δ18O = −9.2 to +17.3‰) intergrown with sulfides reflect variable exchange of the ore-bearing fluid with the Upper and Lower Marbles and proximity to the Plaka granodiorite. Post-Archean Australian Shale (PAAS)-normalized rare earth and yttrium patterns of the Upper and Lower Marbles, and calcite intergrown with sulfides show positive Eu and negative Ce anomalies as well as Y/Ho ratios between 40 and 80. Normalized rare earth and yttrium patterns of fluorite also have positive Eu and negative Ce anomalies. Such anomalies for both the carbonates and fluorite reflect the high pH or high fO2 conditions of the late-stage hydrothermal fluids and the likely derivation of calcium from marine carbonates (precursors of the Upper and Lower Marbles).
The range of sulfur isotope compositions for sulfides (δ34S = −4.9 to +5.3‰, with one outlier of 9.4‰) in carbonate-replacement and vein deposits is due likely to a magmatic sulfur source with a contribution of reduced seawater sulfate. Sulfur isotope compositions of barite from carbonate-replacement range from δ34S = 17.2 to 23.7 per mil and reflect Miocene seawater sulfate values. If a magmatic source of sulfur is assumed along with an average temperature of 250°C for the ore-forming fluids, as based on fluid inclusion studies, sulfides in carbonate-replacement deposits were deposited at values of log fO2 = −41 to −36 and a pH = 5.8 to 9.1. However, the range of sulfur isotope values does not rule out the possibility that sulfur in sulfides could have been produced by the reduction of seawater sulfate with no contribution from a magmatic source. The carbonate-replacement deposits resemble manto-type sulfide deposits in Mexico, central Colorado, South Korea, Nevada, and northern Greece.