India has an extraordinarily strong historical, religious, and cultural association with gold since mining of the precious metal has been documented to have occurred there as long as 4,000 years ago. Currently, India has the highest consumption of consumer gold of any country on the planet, at approximately 1,000 t/year. However, gold production remains dismally small, with perhaps only 3 to 4 t/year recovered during modern times, and only as much as ~20 t/year during its contemporary apogee about 100 years ago. This massive gap will widen further as economic prosperity brings greater disposable income to India’s burgeoning middle class,...

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