The implementation of Perestroika in 1991 has since facilitated a dramatic increase in foreign investment and exploration, in addition to state-funded exploration efforts, across the former Soviet Union. This input of Western cash and expertise has resulted in the exploration, discovery, resource definition, and development of several deposits across the Commonwealth of Independent States (including Azerbaijan, Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Ukraine), and opened the world’s eyes to the region’s considerable gold endowment. By 2004, annual gold production in the CIS was about 320 t, behind only South Africa, and up significantly from pre-1991...

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