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Highly evolved alkaline/peralkaline igneous rocks host deposits of rare earth elements (REE), including Y as well as Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, U, and Th. The host rocks spanning from silica-undersaturated (nepheline syenites) to silica-oversaturated (granites) occur in intraplate tectonic environments, mainly in continental settings and are typically associated with rifting, faulting, and/or crustal extension. They range in age from Neoarchean/Paleoproterozoic to Mesozoic, but several significant deposits are of Mesoproterozoic age. The deposits/prospects can be subdivided into three types. The first is hosted by nepheline syenitic rocks of large, layered alkaline intrusions where the mineralization commonly occurs in layers rich...

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