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Studies of submarine hydrothermal vents over the past 20 years have confirmed that extensive sulfide chimney fields and mounds are created along active rift zones in open-ocean and back-arc basin settings (see Fornari and Embley, 1995; Hannington et al., 1995). These modern deposits represent the surficial expressions and upflow zones of hydrothermal systems thermally driven by intrusion of magma into the oceanic crust. Comparisons have been made with ancient volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) orebodies, some associated with ophiolites, but there are few places on the modern sea floor where the “stockwork” zone has been exposed or studied in detail....

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