Andean Copper Deposits: New Discoveries, Mineralization, Styles and Metallogeny
The copper deposits of Perú consist of porphyry Cu±Mo, Au, Ag, breccia pipe Cu-Mo, enargite vein and replacement Cu±Au, Ag, Zn, Pb, calcic skarn Cu±Fe, Au, Zn, amphibolitic skarn Cu±Fe, volcanogenic massive sulfide Cu-Zn, vein and manto Cu±Ag, Pb, Zn, Sn, W, and sandstone (“red bed”) Cu types. The vast majority of these deposits formed during the Andean Orogeny and are geographically and chronologically distributed in well-defined metallogenic domains. These domains correlate with geochemically distinct magmatic episodes.
The magmatic and metallogenic domains appear to be controlled in part by transverse growth-faults in the Mesozoic and older basement rocks underlying the intensely folded and thrust-faulted Mesozoic and Tertiary rocks of the higher structural levels of the Cordillera. During the Andean Orogeny the extent of magmatism and the corresponding metallogenic provinces were influenced by subducted plate segmentation and by continental margin basement tectonics. In addition, the lithologic nature of the host rocks played an important role in determining the types of copper deposits formed.
Porphyry Cu, breccia pipe Cu-Mo and calcic skarn Cu deposits are related to the Pomahuaca, Coastal and Caldera batholiths, as well as to felsic Cordilleran volcanism between 8° and 12°S. However, the largest and richest porphyry Cu deposits are related to the Caldera batholith. The Cobriza Cu-bearing skarn is the only significant copper deposit of pre-Mesozoic age.
Perú has many ore deposits associated with the Miocene felsic extrusive and intrusive rocks along the Cordillera, forming veins and disseminations in igneous rocks and noncarbonate sedimentary rocks, and replacement mantos, pipes and veins in limestones. Several are large and high-grade enargite-type deposits containing mainly Cu, Ag, Au, Pb and Zn, accompanied by significant amounts of Cd, Te, Se, In, Bi and Tl. Others are veins and mantos containing Cu±Ag, Pb, Zn, Sn, W.
The Mesozoic volcanosedimentary sequences along the coast host volcanogenic massive sulfide Cu-Zn and vein/manto-type amphibolitic skarn Cu±Fe deposits.
Red bed Cu deposits are relatively unimportant in Perú.
The following information on the history of copper mining in Perú has been condensed largely from Samame (1979), Petersen et al.(1990) and Benavides (1990).
In Perú, gold and silver were apparently used before copper. The latter was first mined and processed by the pre-Inca Chimú culture along the northern coast and by the Tiahuanaco civilization in the Lake Titicaca region.
Copper became an important metal during the Inca period,
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