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Because conventional treatment of acid-mine drainage (AMD) involves installation and maintenance of water treatment plants, regulators and mine operators have sought lower cost and lower maintenance technologies. One ecological engineering technology that has received increasing research attention is the use of natural and constructed wetlands for remediation of some of the water-quality problems associated with AMD. As surface water flows through a wetland, several processes can occur to decrease the elevated concentrations of sulfate, trace metals, arsenic, and hydrogen ions that characterize AMD. These processes range from precipitation of mineral phases to the active uptake of solutes by vegetation....

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