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Sediment-hosted precious-metal deposits are typically formed in carbonaceous, silty dolomites and limestones or calcareous siltstones and claystones. Gold mineralization is disseminated in the host sedimentary rocks and is exceedingly fine grained, usually less than one micron in size in unoxidized ore. Primary alteration types include silicification, decalcification, argillization, and carbonization. Supergene alteration is dominated by oxidation resulting in the formation of numerous oxides and sulfates and the release of gold from its association with sulfides. Commonly associated trace elements are arsenic, barium, mercury, antimony, and thallium. Deposits of this type are commonly referred to as either Carlin-type deposits, after...

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