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The BEM divides only the boundary of the region under consideration. Thus, it reduces the dimensionality of the problem to be solved and the number of equations in the system. This advantage becomes more significant for 3-D problems, which are often encountered in geophysics. However, the BEM has drawbacks. For example, if the region has a complex distribution of physical properties, it is difficult to combine the boundary integral equations corresponding to each homogeneous medium and solve the resulting system.

In contrast, when the FEM deals with infinite region or 3-D problems, the number of nodes needed increases greatly;...

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