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Introduction

Heavy-oil reservoirs are an abundant resource, particularly in Canada, Venezuela, and Alaska. By some estimates, heavy oils represent as much as 6.3 trillion barrels of oil in place. This matches available quantities of conventional oil. More than 50% of Canada's oil production is now from heavy oil (Batzle et al., 2006). Much of the heavy-oil recovery in Western Canada involves steam injection, called “hot production.” An alternative to thermal heavy-oil production in the field is known as “cold production,” which is a primary nonthermal process in which reservoir temperature is not affected. The cold production process has been economically...

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