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Steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) method is a heavy-oil in situ recovery technique used for bitumen production of the Athabasca Oil Sands, where bitumen reserves from oil sands are estimated at 173 billion barrels (Alberta Energy and Utilities Board, 2008). The typical configuration of the SAGD includes two horizontal wells of 750 m in length and vertically separated by 5 m, in which the upper well is used for steam injection to increase the mobility of the bitumen and the lower well is for bitumen production. Feasible bitumen recovery from oil sands by SAGD is limited within the lateral perpendicular...

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