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Carbonates are calcareous sediments composed of shredded and reworked remains of shelly invertebrate animals and calcareous algae, microscopic lime-secreting organisms (foraminifera and algae), and coated fecal pellets mixed with lime mud matrix. In addition to these shallow-water sediments, deep ocean bottoms are covered with limey organic microscopic debris (pelagic lime mud). Carbonate facies that make hydrocarbon reservoirs have been formed in clear, shallow, subtropical waters within the photic zone. They consist mainly of aragonite and Mg-rich calcite, which are stable only in marine saline water. Present-day depositional environments of shallow carbonates have been studied worldwide, e.g., Bahamas, Florida shelf,...

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